Notes 4

 5. The Promised Land

1. See Poole's Index, 1, "Jews," and especially the Nineteenth Century, the Theological Review, Chambers Journal, and the London Quarterly.

2. See Theodor H. Gaster, "England," The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (New York, 1941), IV, 118.

3. Edward Dowden, "George Eliot: Daniel Deronda and Middlemarch," Contemporary Review, XXIX (February 1877), 365.

 Notes to Pages 82-92

 4.     See Poole's Index, I and II, "Jews," and especially the Nineteenth Century, Good Words, Fraser's, Eclectic, and the London Quarterly.

5.     Katie Magnus, Jewish Portraits (London, 1925), P. 159.

6.     Ibid.

7. Dowden, "George Eliot," P. 366.

8.     Hermann Adler, "Can Jews be Patriots?" Nineteenth Century, III (April 1878), 638. For the debate in general, see Nineteenth Century, 1877-1882.

9.     The Children of To-morrow (London, 1889), P. 267.

10.   Olive Schreiner, Woman and Labor (New York, 1911). See especially Chap. 1.

11. Children of To-morrow, P. 13.

12.   Preface to Romantic Ballads and Poems of Phantasy (London, 1888), P. iv.

13.   Children of To-morrow, P. 41.

14.    Ibid., pp. 40-41.

15.    Ibid., P. 77.

16. Ibid., P. 213.

17. Ibid., P. 76.

18. Ibid., P. 21.

19. Ibid., P. 19.

20. Ibsen's Rosmersholm (1886) bears enough resemblance to Sharp's novel to suggest that Sharp was perhaps influenced by Ibsen's concept of sexual and social daring. Both tales are constructed around a marital triangle, in which the enlightenment and conversion of the husband functions as the key action, and, though Rebecca and Sanpriel are substantially different, they are both women of talent and personal power, and the crucial agents of the hero's change. Unlike Rosmer and Rebecca, of course, Dane and Sanpriel do not choose to die together, but there is a similarity in their choice of an outlaw life in preference to submission to any of the pressures of convention, and, just as in Ibsen, an enormously fatalistic element in their deaths. Like Rosmer's and Rebecca's, too, their relationship is ultimately defined by a complex combination of personal guilt and retribution with social defiance.

21. Life of Browning (London, 1890), P. 16.

22. Ibid.

23. "The Sonnet in America," National Review, VIII (April 1889), 192-193.

24. Memoir, I, 240. LXXIV (October 1894), 675.

25. The Harvard Monthly devoted its Christmas issue for 1903 to Fiona Macleod and the Celtic movement.

26. Catherine A. Janvier, "Fiona Macleod and Her Creator," North American Review, CLXXXIV (April 1907), 719.

27. Memoir, I, 246.

28. Flower o' the Vine (New York, 1892), introductory note by Thomas Janvier, p. viii.

29. Ibid., p. ix.

30. Memoir, I, 247.

31. "A Note on the Aesthetic Development of America," Scottish Art Review, 11 (November 1889), 162.

32. Ibid., pp. 162-163.

33. Ibid., p. 163.

34. Israel Zangwill, Without Prejudice (New York, 1896), p. 291.

35. Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot (New York, 1910), p. 199.

36. "American Literature," National Review, XVII (March 1891), 71.

37. Introduction to an unfinished Life of Rossetti, planned to make up for the weaknesses of his earlier Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Record and a Study (1882); quoted in Memoir, I, 112.

6. Italy Again

1. Memoir, II, 9.

2. Ibid., I, 310.

3. Ibid., pp. 291-299.

4. Ibid., P. 293. Considering Charles Dickens's significant place-consciousness, it is interesting to compare his reactions to the Roman Campagna with Sharp's, especially since they touch at sone curious points. Dickens in Pictures from Italy (London, 1846, pp. 162-163) described the Campagna as an undulating flat . . .where few people can live; and where, for miles and miles, there is nothing to relieve the terrible monotony and gloom. Of all kinds of country that could lie outside the gates of Rome, this is the aptest and fittest burial-ground for the Dead City. So sad, so quiet, so sullen; so secret in its covering up of great masses of ruin, and hiding them; so like the wasteplaces into which the men possessed with devils used to go and howl, and rend themselves, in the old days of Jerusalem.
When Sharp paused some forty years after Dickens to contemplate a Campagna shepherd and compose a poem to celebrate him ("The Shepherd," Sospiri di Roma [Rome, 1891]), he simply emotionally inverted Dickens picture of "a villainous-looking shepherd: with matted hair all over his face, and himself wrapped to the chin in a frowzy brown mantle, tending his sheep" (P. 473).

5. Richard Burton, "Maeterlinck: Impressionist,' Atlantic Monthly, LXXIV (October 1894), 675.

6. Sospiri, pp. 52-53.

7. Memoir, I. 295.

8. Sospiri, pp. 74-76.

9. See Memoir, I, 298.

10. Sospiri, pp. 49-50.

Notes to Pages 101-108

11. See especially Memoir, II, 5. Sharp himself may have confused Rhys ---perhaps intentionally. See Ernest Rhys, Everyman Remembers (London, 1931), p. 79.

12. Memoir, I, 284.

13. Fiona Macleod, Where the Forest Murmurs, The Works of Fiona Macleod (London, 1912), VI, 173. The essay in which this phrase appeared, called "The Tribe of the Plover," was first published in Country Life, April 15, 1905.

14. Pagan Review, I (August [September] 1892), 4. The editor's preface is quoted in its entirety in Memoir, I, 323-328.

15. With typical whimsy, Sharp mentioned his own name once, on the back cover of the review, in an advertisement for a "forthcoming" volume of "Living Scottish Poets."

16. Interesting to note, Sharp originally planned the publication of Vistas (1894) under the name of Siwaärmill (Memoir, I, 306).

17. Pagan Review, P. 43.

18. Life of Browning (London, 1890), P. 87.

19. Ibid., P. 37.

20. Ibid., P. 45.

21. Ibid., P. 36.

22. Ibid., p. 133.

23. Memoir, I, 305.

24. Ibid., II, 45.

25. "Fragments from the Lost Journals of Piero di Cosimo," Ecce Puella and Other Prose Imaginings (London, 1896), p. 50.

26. Ibid., pp. 50, 59.

27. Ibid., p. 62.

28. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Record and a Study (London, 1882), pp. 285-301.

29. "Monte Oliveto and the Frescoes of Sodona," Art journal, XLVI (April, 1884), 104.

30. Rossetti, P. 137. The prologues to "The Weird of Michael Scott" and "Sospitra" in Romantic Ballads and Poems of Phantasy (London, 1888) contained references to this legend.

31. Philip Bourke Marston, For a Song's Sake and Other Stories (London, 1887), ed. William Sharp. Introductory memoir, p. xli.

32. Ibid., pp. xxvi-xxvii.

33. Life of Shelley (London, 1887), P. 14.

34. "George Meredith's Reading of Earth," Scottish Art Review, (February 1889), 264.

35. Memoir, I, 307.

36. Ibid., pp. 302-303.

37. Ibid., II, 68.

38. Memoir, I, 23. See p. 21.

Notes to Pages 109-117

39. Elie Reclus, Primitive Folk: Studies in Comparative Ethnology, Contemporary Science Series, ed. Havelock Ellis (London, 1892), p. 73.

40. "Maeterlinck," Academy, March 19, 1892, p. 270.

41. "Some Personal Reminiscences of Walter Pater," Atlantic Monthly, LXXIV (December 1894), 813.

42. "Sir Edward Burne-Jones," Atlantic Monthly, LXXXII (September, 1898), 376. An impulse for such analysis, especially self-analysis, in terms of a dual racial strain was obviously one of the by-products of the current ethnological fad. Two instances among French writers who grew up in the nineteenth century may be cited offhand---Ernest Renan (who was himself largely responsible for the popularization of race theories in his day) analyzed the tensions in his own personality in terms of his Celtic-Gascon origins; and Andre Gide, studying his ancestry for keys to self-understanding, was so concerned with the significance of dual racial strains that he pored over entries in current biographical dictionaries to discover the racial genealogies on both sides of the families of notable men and women (Si le grain ne meurt [Paris, 1928], P. 22).

43. "William Morris: The Man and His Work," Atlantic Monthly, LXXVIII (December 1896), 781.

44. The Progress of Art in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1902), pp. 223-224.

45. Ibid., p. 155.

46. Memoir, I, 275.

47. Ibid., p. 82.

48. Lilian Rea, "Fiona Macleod," The Critic, XLVIII (May 1906), p. 460.

49. Ibid.

50. See Reclus, Primitive Folk, pp. 70-75. Edward Carpenter developed Reclus' data into a broad system of hypotheses about the cultural importance of homosexuality in Intermediary Types among Primitive Folk: A Study in Social Evolution (London, 1919).

51. Rossetti, p. 35.

52. "Desolation," The Human Inheritance, The New Hope, Motherhood (London, 1882), p. 163.

53. "Dover Beach," ll. 29-30, 33. The apparent inconsistency is Arnold's; the italics are mine.

54. Memoir, II, 308.