Notes 5

Notes to Pages 117-121

7. Woman

1. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and The Subjection of Women (New York, 1873), p. 244.

2. See Thomas Wentworth Higginson, The Writings of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, vol. XIV: Woman and the Alphabet (Boston, 1900). In the opening essay of this volume Higginson confirms the modern reader's reaction to nineteenth-century woman-consciousness: "It has been seriously asserted, that during the last half-century more books have been written by women and about women than during all the previous uncounted ages. It may be true . . . As to the increased multitude of general treatises on the female sex, however,---its education, life, health, diseases, charms, dress, deeds, sphere, rights, wrongs, work, wages, encroachments, and idiosyncracies generally,---there can be no doubt whatever; and the poorest of these books recognizes a condition of public sentiment of which no other age ever dreamed" ("Ought Women to Learn the Alphabet," pp. 5-6). Higginson concludes that the century has, in relation to women, undergone a "new Reformation."

3. Olive Schreiner, Woman and Labor (New York, 1911), pp. 60-64. Chaps. I and II are principally devoted to the concept of "female parasitism," its history and effects.

4. Henry Thomas Buckle, "The Influence of Women on the Progress of Knowledge," Essays (New York, 1864).

5. Steven Marcus, in The Other Victorians (New York, 1966), notes that William Acton, in writing his authoritative medical treatise The Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs, in Childhood, Youth, Adult Age, and Advanced Life, Considered in their Physiological, Social, and Moral Relations (1857), barely mentions women at all, and "seems perfectly unconscious of the fact that he has anything to account for in this connection" (P. 13).

6. Ibid., pp. 196-197.

7. S. E. Gay, Modern Thought, December 15, 1879; Frances E. Hoggan, M.D. (Manchester, 1884); J. H. Garfit (Boston, 1886); William Reeves (London, 1888); Henry C. Wright (London, 1888). Victorian physiologists were remarkably versatile: Garfit, it is claimed on the title page of his essay, was also the author of A Short Account of the Giraffe.

8. Havelock Ellis, "The Changing Status of Women," Westminster Review, CXXVIII (October 1887), 16. He was quoting from Whitman's Democratic Vistas.

9. Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thompson, The Evolution of Sex (London, 1890), pp. 270-271.

10. "A Woman," "The Effects of Civilization upon Women," National Review, IX (March 1887), 26-38. Sharp's essay was "Rossetti in Prose and Verse," pp. 111-124.

11. Memoir, I, 39.

12. Ibid., II, 7.

13. "William Morris: The Man and His Work," Atlantic Monthly, LXXVIII (December 1896), 780.

14. Mona Caird, The Morality of Marriage and Other Essays on the Status and Destiny of Women (London, 1897). Elizabeth Sharp discusses Mona Caird's writings on marriage in Memoir, I, 226.

Notes to Pages 122-127

15. "Madge o' the Pool: A Thames Etching," The Gipsy Christ and Other Tales (Chicago, 1895), P. 102.

16. He held this post from 1886 to 1889.

17. "To Esther Mona," The Laughter of Peterkin (London, 1895).

18. Fiona Macleod, "The Unborn Child," From the Hills of Dream (Edinburgh, 1895), p. 32.

19. Memoir, I, 198. Sharp's career was nearly one long season of illness. Speaking in public was apparently a great strain for him, and he tried to avoid it by limiting his attempts to talks before small groups. It was for this reason that he did not take a chair of poetry at the University of London, though encouraged by the fervent recommendations of many associates, and also refused an opportunity to deliver a lecture at Harvard in 1892. On the one occasion when he ignored advice and delivered the first of a projected series of lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 1895, he suffered a total collapse. This was followed by intermittent relapses for years afterward. One anguished letter to Geddes in 1896 is a litany of pleas for commiseration. He begged Geddes to send him a secretary while his wife was in Paris covering art exhibitions: "I must not be alone" (Papers of Patrick Geddes, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; letter undated, but apparently from January or February 1896). In 1898 he suffered another total nervous collapse from which he recuperated only partially. From then on until his death in 1905 he required resuscitating trips to the Mediterranean at least once a year.

20. Memoir, I, 303.

21. Richard Le Gallienne, "The Mystery of 'Fiona Macloed'," Forum, XLV (February 1911), 173, and Memoir, II, 5.

22. Memoir, II, 5.

23. Ibid., I, 277.

24. Ibid., II, 5.

25. "A Winter Evening," "Prologue," and "Epilogue: 11 Bosco Sacro, Sospiri di Roma (Rome, 1891), pp. 67, 1, 122.

26. Such references occur in a letter from Sharp to Geddes dated April 29, 1895, and in another, undated, but probably from late 1895; a prospectus for the Evergreen (then not yet the Evergreen, but "The Celtic World") shows Sharp anxious to keep the Celtic sources broad, and have them include "Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Manx, Cornish, and Breton writers" (Geddes Papers).

27. Edith Wingate Rinder, ed., Poems and Lyrics of Nature (London, 1897).

28. Memoir, II, 5-6.

29. Ibid., p. 39.

30. Ernest Rhys, Everyman Remembers (London, 1931), p. 80.

Notes to Pages 127-137

31. Sharp seems to have used the name "Esclarmoundo" for Mrs. Rinder after Pharais, to convey the idealization of his passion. Green Fire carried the dedication "to Esclarmoundo," followed by a passage from Ovid suggestive of Sharp's own attitude: "Nec sine te nec tecum vivere possum." "The Silence of Amor," a group of prose-poems (first appearing in From the Hills of Dream and reprinted in The Works of Fiona Macleod [London, 1910], vol. VI), was similarly dedicated---"To Esclarmoundo: There is one word never spoken in these estrays of passion and longing."

32. Frank Rinder, "William Sharp---'Fiona Macleod': A Tribute," Art Journal, LVIII (February 1906), 44-45.

33. Memoir, I, 316-317.

34. Ibid., pp. 320-321.

35. Ibid., 11, 123-124. The letter is dated March 29, 1898.

36. Ibid., p. 124.

37. "Mr. George Meredith," Good Words, XL (July 1899), 481.

38. Memoir, II, 124-125.

39. Ibid., p. 123.

40. Sarah C. Bowerman, "Blanche Willis Howard," Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1943). Sympathy with feminism seems to have been von Teuffel's most outstanding trait of character. He is, wrote Sharp, "one of the few Germans who seem to regard women as equals" (Memoir, I, 273).

41. A curious sidelight on Sharp's feminism---perhaps Victorian feminism---is provided by the husband's analysis of his wife's desire for freedom: he says it came from seeing her mother's spirit totally suppressed by her father's masterful, dominating will (A Fellowe and His Wife [Boston, 1892] pp. 51-52).

42. Memoir, II, 78. Richard Le Gallienne's wife died in childbirth in 1895.

43. "Fragments from the Lost Journals of Piero di Cosimo," Ecce Puella (London,1896), p.73.

44. "The Birth of a Soul," Vistas (Chicago, 1894), p. 50.

45. Memoir, II, 92.

46. Shelley and "Epipsychidion" are, in fact, invoked by the "wife" in Fellowe and Wife, pp. 26-27.

47. Memoir, I, 83.

48. Ibsen was a penetrating student of the psychopathology of feminism, and he provides another suggestive parallel to Sharp's situation in Rosmersholm (1886), where Rosmer, Rebecca West, and Beata form a mutually dependent and reciprocally self-sacrificing triangle. Perhaps such curious relationships were not then as far-fetched, in life or literature, as they may seem now.

49. Papers of William Sharp, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. His notes for the volume of short stories are particularly copious; he planned to dedicate it to George Meredith, "great captain in the army of students of life."

50. Ibid., MS essay on "Macterlinck's Pelleas et Melisande."

Notes to Pages 137-142

51. "The Hotel of the Beautiful Star," Harper's, CIII (October 1901), 673.

52. Ibid., p. 679.

53. See "Dual Personality in the Case of William Sharp," Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, X (April 1911), 57-63, in which the possibility of technical duality is rejected. "The view that [Sharp and Macleod] were two personalities seems to turn on [Sharp's and Mrs. Sharp's] clear and unwavering impression that so it was---an impression apparently never divorced from their belief in their underlying unity" (p. 57). The following arguments against "classic" duality are given: (1) no clear or marked superiority, either moral or intellectual, (2) no pathological element, and (3) no breach of memory. The Fiona Macleod pose does not provide a classic case of imposture, either, as that is defined by Phyllis Greenacre, M.D.---"far surpassing in interest and apparent ability the impostor's ordinary 'other self'" ("The Relation of the Impostor to the Artist," The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XIII [1958] 1, 521).

54. Memoir, II, 208.

55. Fellowe and Wife, p. 34. The Comedy of Woman was planned as an ambitious project of exploration: each story

was conceived as a study of some prevailing female passion---e.g., "woman consciously making pleasure her one

aim," "woman who gladly forfeits all for passion," "woman in love with herself," "religious mania," "the passionate,

basic craving for maternity," etc. (Sharp Papers)

56. "Ecce Puella," Ecce Puella, p. 24.

57. Ibid., P. 19.

58. Ibid., P. 27.

59. An indication of the kind of reaction he avoided is provided by George Meredith's letter thanking Sharp for not dedicating to him his Fair Women in Painting and Poetry (Portfolio of Artistic Monographs, no. 7 [I894]; a bit of critical fluff). "Thousands of curdling Saxons," wrote Meredith, "are surly almost to the snarl at the talk about'woman.' Next to the Anarchist, we are hated" (Memoir, II, 35).

60. Pharais (Derbyshire, 1894); The Mountain Lovers (London, 1895). Both novels were reprinted as vol. I of Works.

61. Green Fire (New York, 1896), P. 279.

62. "Some Reminiscences of Christina Rossetti," Atlantic Monthly, LXXV (June 1895), 745.

63. See especially "Iona," The Divine Adventure; Iona; By Sundown Shores (London, 1900). One spiritualistic commentator on Fiona Macleod posed the view that Sharp's pseudonymous personality was the result of his being "possessed" by the spirit of St. Bridget (Edith Rolt Wheeler, "Fiona Macleod," Fortnightly Review, CVI [November 1919], 780-790).

64. Beong-cheon Yu, An Ape of Gods: The Art and Thought of Lafcadio Hearn (Detroit, 1964), pp. 208-210.

Notes to Pages 143-151

65. Some of Miguel de Unamuno's stories supply hints of a further development in the twentieth-century symbolic use of women. His characterizations of women in terms of raw sexual or maternal impulse bring some of Fiona Macleod's Celtic heroines up to date and suggest that Sharp was prefiguring the anti-intellectual bent of many experimental treatments of women in modern literature. See Three Exemplary Novels, trans. Angel Flores (New York, 1956).

66. Works, VII, 82-86. The poem first appeared in the second edition of From the Hills of Dream.

67. "The Distant Country," Dominion of Dreams (London, 1899), pp. 210-213.

68. Silence Farm (London, 1899), pp. 188-193.

69. Ibid., P. 218.

70. Obviously not in his line either was the comic treatment of woman's desire for freedom, attempted in Wives in Exile (London, 1898). \

71. Sharp made an intensive study of Hardy's work to 1892, and one would expect that he followed Hardy closely thereafter. See "Thomas Hardy and His Novels," Forum, XXVI (July 1892), 583-593.