8. The New Cosmopolitanism
1. Memoir, I, 309.
2. Ibid., p. 287.
3. "Maeterlinck," Academy, March 19, 1892, p. 270.
5. Richard Burton, "Maeterlinck: Impressionist," Atlantic Monthly, LX-XIV (October 1894), 676. Another veiled personal controversy may have found expression in this article; without mentioning Sharp as a Maeterlinck supporter, Burton attacks him, together with Whitman and Henley, as among the "dubious experimenters" in vers libre (p. 675).
6. "La Jeune Belgique," Nineteenth Century, XXXIV (September 1893), 417-418.
7. Ibid., p. 418.
(ed. 8. missing)
9. Patrick Geddes expressed the same view when be said that the object of the Edinburgh movement was "to arrest the tremendous centralizing power of the metropolis of London" (quoted in Memoir, II, 49).
10. "A Note on the Belgian Renascence," Chap-Book, IV (December 1895), 151.
11. Ibid., p. 154.
12. Ibid., P. 156.
13. Quoted in Memoir, II, 50.
14. Israel Zangwill, Without Prejudice (New York, 1896), p. 291.
Notes to Pages 151-160
15. Victor Branford, "Old Edinburgh and the Evergreen," Bookman, IX (December 1895), 89. Sharp himself was emissary to Paris for the formation of the Franco-Scottish Society; letters of Sharp to Geddes through1895 refer to such arrangements (Papers of Patrick Geddes, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh).
16. Compare Sophia Fiechter, von William Sharp zu Fiona Macleod (Tubingen, 1936), p. 69; also Ernest Rhys,
17. Everyman Remembers (London,1931),p.80.
16. Memoir, II, 60.
17. Sharp to Geddes, April 29, 1895, Geddes Papers.
18. "The Dramas of Gabriele D'Annunzio," Fortnightly Review, LXXIV (September 1900), 391-409.
19. "Italian Poets of Today," Quarterly Review, CXCVI (July 1902), 239-268.
20.William Kingdon Clifford, Cosmic Emotion; also [Virchow on] the Teaching of Science (London, 1888), pp. 11-13. Rhys, in Everyman Remembers, cites Clifford's work as causing a great deal of excitement and playing a major part in setting the intellectual tone of London in the late eighties; see Prologue, p. ii.
21. Ibid., p. 15.
22. Beong-cheon Yu, An Ape of Gods: The Art and Thought of Lafcadio Hearn (Detroit, 1964), pp. 175-177. Yu's references in this connection are to Hearn's essays "A Language Question" and "The Prose of Small Things."
23. Edward Carpenter, The Art of Creation (London, 1904), P. 34. Carpenter was a friend of Rhys, and one of the originals of the "Vita Nuova" Fellowship in the late eighties (Rhys, Everyman Remembers, p. 2). His universalist philosophy took on the distinctly political cast of anti-nationalism during the First World War, when he wrote his outraged reaction to the war, Never Again! (London, 1916).
24. Herman Ausubel, In Hard Times: Reformers among the Late Victorians (New York, 1960), P. 32.
25. See especially Ruth Z. Temple, The Critics' Alchemy (New York, 1963), Chapters I-III, and Christophe Campos, The View of France: Arnold to Bloomsbury (London, 1965), pp. 30-48.
26. Joseph Texte, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan Spirit in Literature, trans. J. W. Matthews (New York, 1929), Introduction, p. xxi. The text used here is a reprint of the original translation published in London in 1899.
26. Ibid., p. xvi.
27. Life of Heine (London, 1888), P. 93.
28. Havelock Ellis, The New Spirit (New York, n.d.), pp. 22, 25. The Introduction is dated 1892.
29. Charles Dudley Warner, ed., Library of the World's Best Literature, Ancient and Modern (New York, 1896-97).
30. Sharp's contributions to this encyclopedic work were "Celtic Literature" (with Ernest Rhys), VIII, 3403-3450; "Icelandic Literature," XX, 7865-7895; "Myths and Folklore of the Aryan Peoples" (with Ernest Rhys), XXVI, 10522-10542; and "Hersart de la Villemarque: The Heroic and Legendary Literature of Brittany," XXXVIII, 15377-15391.
Notes to Pages 161-166
31. Cosmopolitans did not, of course, stop with the west. Indian and oriental cultures were also enjoying popularity. Even Sharp had intentions of invading Lafcadio Hearn's domain with an article on "Lyric Japan" (Memoir, I, 350).
32. Texte, Rousseau, pp. 79-80.
33. Foreword to The House of Usna (Portland, Me., 1903). This essay is reprinted in The Works of Fiona Macleod (London, 1912), VII, 291-307, and in revised form was published as the title essay in The Winged Destiny (London, 1904), pp. 367-390.
34."Land of Theocritus," Harper's, CVI (April 1903), 802-804. This essay was only one of a series of projected "Greek Backgrounds" (Memoir, II, 246). Sharp visited Greece in the winter of 1903.
35. Memoir, II, 209.
36. Texte, Rousseau, p. 366.
37. Letter from Fiona Macleod to Katherine Tynan, March 24, 1897; quoted in Tynan, "William Sharp and Fiona Macleod," Fortnightly Review, LXXVI (March 1906), 578. Chambers'and other contemporary biographical dictionaries contained special entries for Fiona Macleod, invented by Sharp to maintain the illusion of her separate existence.
38. Sharp's concept of racial "reorganization" is a reminder that the fundamentally cosmopolitan principle underlying the Catholic Church bore renewed and influential significance. Even so positivist a thinker as H. G. Wells found it worthy of comment: "It dawned upon me," he wrote in Experiment in Autobiography (New York, 1934) of his mental life at about the turn of the century, "that there had been a Catholic Reformation as drastic as and perhaps profounder than the Protestant Reformation, and that the mentality of clerical Rome, instead of being an unchanged system in saccula sacculorum had been stirred to its foundations at that time and was still struggling---like everything else alive---in the grip of adaptive necessity. In spite of my anti-Christian bias I found something congenial in the far flung cosmopolitanism of the Catholic proposition. Notwithstanding its synthesis of decaying ancient theologies and its strong taint of other-worldliness, the Catholic Church continues to be, in its own half-hearted fashion, an Open Conspiracy to reorganize the whole life of man . . . Catholicism is something greater in scope and spirit than any nationalist Protestantism. It is a question too fine for me to discuss whether I am an outright atheist or an extreme heretic on the furthest verge of Christendom . . . But certainly I branch from the Catholic stem" (pp. 486-487).
39. "Cardinal Lavigerie's Work in North Africa," Atlantic Monthly, LXXIV (August 1894), 226.
40. "Iona," The Divine Adventure; Iona; By Sundown Shores (London, 1900), p. 167.
Notes to Pages 167-175
41. "The Wayfarer," Winged Destiny. The story first appeared in Cosmopolis in 1898.
42. "The Gael and His Heritage," Winged Destiny, p. 235. The essay first appeared in the Nineteenth Century in 1900.
43. The Dominion of Dreams (London, 1899). This series of tales was continued from The Sin-Eater and Other Tales (Edinburgh, 1895).
44. Winged Destiny. See also "Lost," Dominion of Dreams.
45. "Cuilidh Moire" and "Man on the Moor," Winged Destiny. "Cuilidh Moire" first appeared in the Contemporary Review in 1902.
46. "To E.W.R.," Pharais (Derbyshire, 1894), p. ix.
47. Lyra Ceitica (Edinburgh, 1896), Introduction, p. 11.
48. Ibid., p. 427.
49. "Iona," pp. 245-246.
50. "Celtic," Winged Destiny, P. 200. The essay first appeared in the Contemporary Review in 1900.
51. "Prelude," Winged Destiny, p. 169. The essay first appeared as the Foreword to a reprint of the essay "Celtic" in book form (Portland, Me., 1901).
52. Ibid., p. 177.
53. "The Irish Muse: I," North American Review, CLXXIX (November 1904), 689. Part II of this essay appeared the following month (pp. 900912).
54. "Prelude," p. 178.
55. "Iona," P. 119.
56. Ethel Goddard, "The Winged Destiny and Fiona Macleod," Fortnightly Review, LXXVIII (December 1904), 1038. Fiona Macleod had spoken glowingly of Miss Goddard's Dreams for Ireland in the very volume she was reviewing (Winged Destiny, P. 270).
57. Ibid., pp. 1037, 1044; quoting from Winged Destiny, pp. 193, 198.
58. Wind and Wave (Leipzig, 1902).
59. "To E.W.R.," Pharais, p. vii.
60. "Iona," p. 167.
61. "Celtic," P. 189.