Notes 7

9. The Geography of the Mind

1. Joseph Texte, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan Spirit in Literature, trans. J. W. Matthews (New York, 1929), pp. 79-80.

2. Ibid., Introduction, pp. xviii-xix.

3. Ibid., p. 336.

4. Ibid., p. 369.

5. The Progress of Art in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1902), Introduction, p. v.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., p. 3.

Notes to Pages 175-185

8. Ibid., p. 32.

9. Ibid., p. 46.

10. Texte, Rousseau, p. 293.

11. Progress of Art, pp. 79-81.

12. Ibid., p. 81.

13. Ibid., P. 89.

14. Edward Carpenter, The Art of Creation (London, 1904), p. 33.

15. Ibid., pp. 56-57.

16. Literary Geography (London, 1904), pp. 7-8.

17. Ibid., pp. 93-95.

18. Ibid., pp. 109-112.

19. Ibid., pp. 132-133.

20. Ibid., p. 136. Consistent with Sharp's now fully-flowered sense of place were the projected "Greek Backgrounds" (Memoir, II, 246).

21. Compare Phyllis Bentley, The English Regional Novel (London, 1941), in which the author defines the "true" regional novel in just such narrow, almost Marxian terms (pp. 21-23).

22. Silence Farm (London, 1899), pp. 138-139.

23. "La Jeune Belgique," Nineteenth Century, XXXIV (September 1893), 434.

24. Green Fire (New York, 1896), pp. 282-283.

25. The Sin-Eater and Other Tales (Edinburgh, 1895).

26. Foreword to The Silence of Amor and Where the Forest Murmurs, The Works of Fiona Macleod (London, 1910), VI, 7. The Silence of Amor first appeared as part of the second edition of From the Hills of Dream (Edinburgh, 1896).

27. The Silence of Amor, The Works of Fiona Macleod (London, 1910), VI, 15, 22, 27, 30.

28. "The Lynn of Dreams," The Winged Destiny (London, 1904), p. 152. The story first appeared in the Contemporary Review in 1902.

29. See Memoir, II, 333, where Mrs. Sharp documents this phase, which she says was followed by an attempt on Sharp's part to bring his two "personalitics" into harmony.

30. "Celtic," Winged Destiny, P. 197.

31. "The Tribe of the Plover," Works, VI, 173. All of the essays incorporated into Where the Forest Murmurs first appeared in Country Life during 1904 and 1905.

32. Ibid., p. 41 1.

33. Prologue to The Washer of the Ford (Edinburgh, 1895), p. 4.

34. The Divine Adventure; Iona; By Sundown Shores (London, 1900), p. 414.

35. Ibid., p. 430.

36. From the Hills of Dreams: Threnodies, Songs, and Later Poems (London,1901).

Notes to Pages 185-193

37. "The Shadowy Waters," Winged Destiny, pp. 325-326, 337. The essay first appeared as "The Later Work of Mr. Yeats" in the North American Review in 1902.

38. Ibid., pp. 332-333.

39. Sharp did not resist the pressures to have Fiona Macleod's closet dramas played, and The House of Usna was performed by the Stage Society at the Globe in 1900, under his own direction. After Sharp's death, The Immortal Hour was turned into an opera by Rutland Boughton, with apparent success. Mrs. Sharp then dedicated the latter play's posthumous reprinting to E.W.R.

40. Sharp spoke in his Foreword to The House of Usna ("Fatality in the Tragic Drama") of D'Annunzio's La Citta Morta as "that most perturbing of all modern dramas" (Works, VII, 300). See also "The Dramas of Gabriele D'Annunzio," Fortnightly Review, LXXIV (September 1900).

41. Dorothy M. Hoare, The Work of Morris and Yeats in Relation to Early Saga Literature (Cambridge, Eng., 1937), p. 102.

42. Carlo Levi, Christ Stopped at Eboli, trans. Frances Frenaye (New York, 1947), pp. 183-184.

43. "The Winged Destiny" (revised version of Foreword to The House of Usna), Winged Destiny, p. 367.

44. Foreword to The House of Usna, Works, VII, 292.

45. Ibid., p. 299.

46. Ibid., p. 304.

47. Ibid., pp. 294-295.

48. Carpenter, Art of Creation, p. 22.

49. Foreword to The House of Usna, Works, VII, 303.

50. Ibid., p. 305.

51. Ibid., p. 306.

52. "A Field for Modern Verse," Dome, n.s. IV (March 1899), 207.

53. Ibid., p. 209.

54. Ethel Rolt Wheeler, "William Sharp and Fiona Macleod," Fortnightly Review, CXII (November 1919), 786.

55. Quoted in Memoir, II, 335, from lecture given to the Aberdeen Center of the Franco-Scottish Society in 1907.

56. "Edward Burne-Jones," Fortnightly Review, LXX (August 1898), 291-292.

57. Ibid., p. 294.

58. Ibid., pp. 298, 300.

59. Ibid., p. 297.

60. Ibid., p. 305.

61. "Puvis de Chavannes," Art journal, LX (December 1898), 377.

62. "Land of Theocritus," Harper's, CVI (April 1903), 802-804. This same theme appears, with varying degrees of development, in all Sharp's essays on Sicily.

Notes to Pages 193-200

63. "Garden of the Sun: I," Century, LXXI (March 1906), 681.

64. "The Sicilian Highlands, Atlantic Monthly, XCIII (April 1904), 474.

65. "Garden of the Sun: II," Century, LXXII (May 1906), 50.

66. Ibid., p. 5 3.

67. Ibid., p. 54.

68. Memoir, II, 326.

10. Conclusion

1. See Phyllis Greenacre, M.D., "Discussion and Comments on the Psychology of Creativity," Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, I (January 1962), 129-137, and "Experiences of Awe in Childhood," The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, XI (1956), 9-30.

2. H. G. Wells's judgments on his own schoolboy sense of England's glorious superiority sustain this generalization, particularly his comment that he was then (in the late seventies) at a stage of puerility "at which the brains of great multitudes of English people halted for good. Adolf Hitler," he continued, from the enlightened vantage point of 1933, "is no more than one of my thirteen year old reveries come real. A whole generation of Germans has failed to grow up." Experiment in Autobiography (London, 1934), pp.70,74.

3. Many of the city-dwellers of the seventies and eighties were firstgeneration urbanites: the population of urban areas in England tripled between 1821 and 1871, and Irish- and Scottish-born immigrants to England doubled within the same period. See E. L. Woodward, The Age of Reform, 1850-1870 (Oxford, 1938), pp. 579-580. The Great Depression only served to heighten a sense of dislocation among the poor by causing severe unemployment and underemployment. "To the respectable public, workers remained semi-savages---brutal, dirty, ignorant, lazy, untrustworthy." Herman Ausubel, In Hard Times (New York, 1960), pp. 35-37. Under the circumstances, the poor could have felt only slightly less foreign than foreigners. Some literary men surely thought so: Henry James devoted his novel The Princess Casamassima and Joseph Conrad The Secret Agent to the anarchistic impulses of these declasses. And E. M. Forster's Howards End succinctly identified the outcast sense of the poor in the naming of his character Leonard Bast---undoubtedly typical Forster shorthand for "bastard."

4. Daniel Deronda (New York, 1901), I, 19.

5. "The Poet of Ballyshannon" (1888), quoted in Richard Ellmann, The Identity of Yeats (New York, 1954), pp. 14-15.

6. It is no wonder Conrad could say in a private moment, "I am an alien." The same secure English character made aliens of men who did not have Conrad's reasons for feeling foreign. Shaw was allegedly described by some of his contemporaries as an alien, H. G. Wells as having "an Alien mentality," with the result that even Wells is said to have spoken of himself as Jewish, and as possessing "no God, no King, no nationality." See Joseph Lefwich, Israel Zangwill (New York, 1957), pp. 139-147.

Notes to Pages 201-208

7. Prefaces (London, 1937), pp. 50-52; Preface to The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897).

8. Ibid., p. 154; Preface to Within the Tides (1920).

9. Studies in Classic American Literature (New York, 1964), pp. 3, 5-6. In the respects suggested here, but also in many other respects, the likenesses between Sharp and Lawrence are striking. Both in his consciousness of multiple personality in himself and in his quasi-metaphysical treatment of the dual sexual principle, especially the "Woman-Idea," Lawrence seems to have reembodied Sharp. Their equally restless wandering, their obsession with place, their concern with reconstituting the sexual relationship through a literary strategy of primitivism and the use of folk symbology---these are all remarkably strong points of contact. The Etruscans, the Sicilians, and Italy in general profoundly stirred them both, and the free-verse Sospiri that resulted from Sharp's Italian experience bears suggestive resemblances to Lawrence's Birds, Beasts, and Flowers. Perhaps there is evidence that all these crossed lines were not merely coincidental in the fact that Heinemann was in the process of printing all the Sharp-Macleod writings, as well as Mrs. Sharp's Memoir, at precisely the time they were publishing Lawrence's first novel. And the title of that novel, The White Peacock, apparently suggested by someone at Heinemann, is also, curiously, the title of one of the best and most frequently anthologized poems of Sharp's Sospiri.

10. A Passage to India (New York, 1952), p. 282.

11. "The Winged Destiny and Fiona Macleod," Fortnightly Review, LXXVII (December 1904), 1037.

12. Howards End (New York, 1945), pp. 370-371, 298.